International Smoking Statistics

The following is a list of published papers that have cited International Smoking Statistics

If you publish a work or know of other works that have cited this report, please send us the bibliographical details

Last Updated 19 December 2016.


Adair T, Hoy D, Dettrick Z, Lopez AD. Reconstruction of long-term tobacco consumption trends in Australia and their relationship to lung cancer mortality. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22:1047-53.

Adair T, Hoy D, Dettrick Z, Lopez AD. 100 years of mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Australia: the role of tobacco consumption. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2012;16:1699-705.

Ali SM, Chaix B, Merlo J, Rosvall M, Wamala S, Lindström M.  Gender differences in daily smoking prevalence in different age strata: a population-based study in southern Sweden.  Scand J Public Health 2009;37:146-52.

Ando M, Wakai K, Seki N, Tamakoshi A, Suzuki K, Ito Y, et al.  Attributable and absolute risk of lung cancer death by smoking status: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.  Int J Cancer 2003;105:249-54.

Asahi S, Uehara R, Watanabe M, Tajimi M, Oki I, Ojima T, et al.  Respiratory symptoms correlating to smoking prevalence: the National Nutrition Survey and the National Life-style Survey in Japan.  J Epidemiol 2003;13:226-31.

Auluck A. Epidemiological shifts and risk behaviours for oral and oropharyngeal cancers in multicultural population of British Columbia, Canada [Thesis]. Vancouver: University of British Columbia; 2012.

Barclay K, Myrskylä M. Maternal age and offspring health and health behaviours in late adolescence in Sweden. SSM - Population Health 2016;2:68-76.

Boardman JD, Blalock CL, Pampel FC.  Trends in the genetic influences on smoking.  J Health Soc Behav 2010;51:108-23.

Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M, Rose R, Marmot M.  Changes in smoking prevalence in Russia, 1996-2004.  Tob Control 2006;15:131-5.

Boffetta P, Burstyn I, Partanen T, Kromhout H, Svane O, Langård S, et al.  Cancer mortality among European asphalt workers: an international epidemiological study. II. Exposure to bitumen fume and other agents.  Am J Ind Med 2003;43:28-39.

Boffetta P, Burstyn I, Partanen T, Kromhout H, Svane O, Langård S, et al. IARC epidemiological study of cancer mortality among European asphalt workers, IARC Internal Report No. 01/003. Lyon: IARC; 2001.

Boffetta P, Järvholm B, Brennan P, Nyrén O.  Incidence of lung cancer in a large cohort of non-smoking men from Sweden.  Int J Cancer 2001;94:591-3.

Boffetta P, Kreuzer M, Benhamou S, Agudo A, Wichmann HE, Gaborieau V, et al.  Risk of lung cancer from tobacco smoking among young women from Europe [Letter].  Int J Cancer 2001;91:745-6.

Boffetta P, Pershagen G, Jöckel K-H, Forastiere F, Gaborieau V, Heinrich J, et al.  Cigar and pipe smoking and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study from Europe.  J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:697-701.

Boffetta P, Soutar A, Cherrie JW, Granath F, Andersen A, Anttila A, et al.  Mortality among workers employed in the titanium dioxide production industry in Europe.  Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:697-706.

Bondy SJ, Victor JC, Diemert LM.  Origin and use of the 100 cigarette criterion in tobacco surveys.  Tob Control 2009;18:317-23.

Bongaarts J.  Trends in causes of death in low-mortality countries: implications for mortality projections.  Popul Dev Rev 2014;40:189-2122.

Boyle P, Autier P, Bartelink H, Baselga J, Boffetta P, Burn J, et al.  European code against cancer and scientific justification: third version (2003).  Ann Oncol 2003;14:973-1005.

Bray F, Tyczynski JE, Parkin DM.  Going up or coming down? The changing phases of the lung cancer epidemic from 1967 to 1999 in the 15 European Union countries.  Eur J Cancer 2004;40:96-125.

Britton J.  Tobacco: the epidemic we could all avoid.  Thorax 1997;52:1022.

Burstyn I, Boffetta P, Heederik D, Partanen T, Kromhout H, Svane O, et al.  Mortality from obstructive lung diseases and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt workers.  Am J Epidemiol 2003;158:468-78.

Cabrera MJA.  Factores de Riesgo y asociacion con enfermedad cerebrovascular trombotica.  Neurologia 2007;

Calabria B, Degenhardt L, Nelson P, Bucello C, Roberts A, Lynskey M, et al. What do we know about the extent of cannabis use and dependence? Results of a global systematic review, Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney; 2010. Technical Report Number 207.$file/TR+307.pdf

Cassidy A, Field JK. Environmental and genetic risk factors of lung cancer. In: Taktak AFG, Fisher AC, editors. Outcome and prediction in cancer. Netherlands: Elsevier, 67-100.

Christopoulou R. Smoking in the United Kingdom. In: Lillard DR, Christopoulou R, eds. Life-course smoking behavior: Patterns and national context in ten countries. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 43-56.

Corsi DJ, Boyle MH, Lear SA, Chow CK, Teo KK, Subramanian SV. Trends in smoking in Canada from 1950 to 2011: progression of the tobacco epidemic according to socioeconomic status and geography. Cancer Causes Control 2014;25(1):45-57.

Crimmins EM, Preston SH, Cohen B, editors. International differences in mortality at older ages. Dimensions and sources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010.

Crispo A, Barba M, Malvezzi M, Arpino G, Grimaldi M, Rosso T, et al.  Cancer mortality trends between 1988 and 2009 in the metropolitan area of Naples and Caserta, Southern Italy: Results from a joinpoint regression analysis.  Cancer BiolTher 2013;14:1113-22.

Crispo A, Brennan P, Jöckel K-H, Schaffrath-Rosario A, Wichmann H-E, Nyberg F, et al.  The cumulative risk of lung cancer among current, ex- and never-smokers in European men.  Br J Cancer 2004;91:1280-6.

Darby SC.  Tobacco—the importance of relevant information on risk.  Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 2003, June;166:225.

de Jong WK, Schaapveld M, Blaauwgeers JLG, Groen HJ.  Pulmonary tumors in the Netherlands: focus on temporal trends in histology and stage and on rare tumours.  Thorax 2008; epub ahead of print

Deaton A. Health in an age of globalization. In: Brookings Trade Forum. Brookings Institution Press, 2004;83-130.

Degenhardt L, Chiu W-T, Sampson N, Kessler RC, Anthony JC, Angermeyer M, et al.  Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.  PLoS Med 2008;5:1053-67.

Devesa SS, Bray F, Vizcaino AP, Parkin DM.  International lung cancer trends by histologic type: male:female differences diminishing and adenocarcinoma rates rising.  Int J Cancer 2005;117:294-9.

Diergaarde B, Vrieling A, van Kraats AA, van Muijen GNP, Kok FJ, Kampman E.  Cigarette smoking and genetic alterations in sporadic colon carcinomas.  Carcinogenesis 2003;24:565-71.

Doll R.  Chronic and degenerative disease: major causes of morbidity and death.  Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(Suppl 6):1301S-5S.

Doll R.  Uncovering the effects of smoking: historical perspective.  Stat Methods Med Res 1998;7:87-117.

Doll R.  Tobacco: A medical history.  Journal of Urban Health 1999;76:289-313.

Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I.  Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors.  BMJ 2004;328:1519-28.

Donato-Hunt C, Munot S, Copeland J, Black M, Chambers K, Cooper-Stanbury M, et al. Alcohol and other drug use, attitudes and knowledge amongst the Italian community in Sydney, Report 3/6. Sydney: The Drug and Alcohol Multicultural Education Centre; 2008.

Duggan JM, Duggan AE.  The possible causes of the pandemic of peptic ulcer in the late 19th and early 20th century.  Med J Aust 2006;185:667-9.

Ezzati M, Lopez AD. Smoking and oral tobacco use. In: Ezzati M, Lopez A, Rodgers A, Murray CJL, editors. Comparative quantification of health risks : global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization, 883-957.

Ezzati M, Lopez AD.  Measuring the accumulated hazards of smoking: global and regional estimates for 2000.  Tob Control 2003;12:79-85.

Fairbairn SEA.  Lung stem cells as a possible origin of cancer.  Thorax 2005;60:858.

Feenstra TL, van Gunugten MLL, Hoogenveen RT, Wouters EF, Rutten-van Mölken MPMH.  The impact of aging and smoking on the future burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:590-6.

Fenelon A, Blue L. Widening life expectancy advantage of Hispanics in the United States: 1990-2010. J Immigr Minor Health 2015;17(4):1130-7.

Fenelon A.  Geographic Divergence in Mortality in the United States.  Popul Dev Rev 2013;39:611-34.

Fernández E, Schiaffino A, Borrás JM.  Epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa. (Epidemiology of smoking in Europe).  Salud Publica Mex 2002;44(Suppl 1):S11-S19.

Flieder DB, Hammar SP. Common non-small-cell carcinomas and their variants. In: Tomashefksi JF, Jr., Cagle PT, Farver CF, Fraire AE, editors. Dail and Hammar's pulmonary pathology: Volume II. Neoplastic lung disease. New York: Springer, 2008;216-307.

Foltys C. Untersuchung zum rauchverhalten und zu prädiktoren des tabakkonsums von schülern im Thüringer großstadtraum [Thesis]. Freidrich-Schiller-Universität Jena; 2008.

Forey BA, Lee PN.  New edition of International Smoking Statistics [Letter].  Int J Epidemiol 2007;36:471-2.

Forey BA, Thornton AJ, Lee PN.  Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.  BMC Pulm Med 2011;11:36.

Franceschi S, Bidoli E.  The epidemiology of lung cancer.  Ann Oncol 1999;10(Suppl 5):3-6.

Franceschi S, Naett C.  Trends in smoking in Europe.  Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:271-84.

Frenk H, Dar R. A critique of nicotine addiction, Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors, Volume 2. Springer; 2000.

Fry JS, Lee PN.  Revisiting the association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. II. Adjustment for the potential confounding effects of fruit, vegetables, dietary fat and education.  Indoor Built Environ 2001;10:20-39.

Funatogawa I, Funatogawa T, Yano E.  Impacts of early smoking initiation: long-term trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking initiation from repeated cross-sectional surveys in Great Britain.  BMJ Open 2012;2:

Funatogawa I, Funatogawa T, Yano E.  Trends in smoking and lung cancer mortality in Japan, by birth cohort, 1949-2010.  Bull World Health Organ 2013;91:332-40.

Gajalakshmi CK, Jha P, Ranson K, Nguyen S. Global patterns of smoking and smoking-attributable mortality. In: Jha P, Chaloupka F, editors. Tobacco control in developing countries. OUP for World Bank and World Health Organization, 2000;

Garavello W, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Lucchini F, Bosetti C, Malvezzi M, et al.  The oral cancer epidemic in central and eastern Europe.  Int J Cancer 2010;127:160-71.

Gersten O, Wilmoth JR.  The cancer transition in Japan since 1951.  Demographic Research 2002;7:271-30638.

Gilbert G. Smoke: craving history. In: Heath S, MacCabe C, Riley D, editors. Before modernism was: modern history and the constituency of writing. Hampshire. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004;

Gilmore A, Pomerleau J, McKee M, Rose R, Haerpfer CW, Rotman D, et al.  Prevalence of smoking in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union: results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health study.  Am J Public Health 2004;94:2177-87.

Gilmore AB, McKee M.  Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union.  Tob Control 2004;13:136-42.

Gilmore AB, McKee M.  Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union.  Tob Control 2005;14:13-21.

Gilmore AB, Osterberg E, Heloma A, Zatonski W, Delcheva E, McKee M. Free trade versus the protection of health: The examples of alcohol and tobacco. In: McKee M, MacLehose L, Nolte E, editors. Health policy and European Union enlargement. England, New York: Open University Press, 2004;198-224. (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Series.)

Gilmore ABC. Tobacco and transition: understanding the impact of transition on tobacco use and control in the former Soviet Union. San Francisco: Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education; 2005. (Reports on Industry Activity from Outside UCSF.)

Goerdel H. The policital economy of tobacco control in the European Union. Presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, April 3-6, 2003. 2003;

Goffette C. Contextualizing smoking: the influence of household factors on smoking habits. In:  EQUALSOC Summer School, Trento, 31 Aug - 6th Sep 2008. 2008;1-15.

Graham H.  Smoking prevalence among women in the European Community 1950-1990.  Soc Sci Med 1996;43:243-54.

Graham H, Der G.  Patterns and predictors of tobacco consumption among women.  Health Educ Res 1999;14:611-8.

Graham H, Inskip HM, Francis B, Harman J.  Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications.  J Epidemiol Community Health 2006;60(Supp II):ii7-ii12.

Hagemeister T. Rauchverhalten und einstellung zum rauchen von zahnarztlichem (Smoke behaviour and attitude to smoking among dental personnel) [Thesis]. Medizinischen Fakultät der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena;

Halpin MG.  Preventing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  Expert Rev Resp Med 2009;3:449-52.

Harris JE, Thun MJ, Mondul AM, Calle EE.  Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8.  BMJ 2004;328:72-6. Full version available at

Hemminki K, Xinjun L.  Level of education and the risk of cancer in Sweden.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:796-802.

Hemminki K, Zhang H, Czene K.  Socioeconomic factors in cancer in Sweden.  Int J Cancer 2003;105:692-700.

Hermalin AI, Lowry D. The age prevalence of smoking among Chinese women: a case of arrested diffusion?, Population studies center research report 10-718. Population Studies Center, University of Michigan Institute for Social Research; 2010.

Hermalin AI, Lowry DS. The decline of smoking among female birth cohorts in China in the 20th century: a case of arrested diffusion? Popul Res Policy Rev 2012;31:545-70.

Hill C, Laplanche A.  Évolution de la consommation de cigarettes en France par sexe, 1900-2003.  B E H 2005;94-7.

Hill C, Laplanche A. Le tabac en France: les vrais chiffres. Paris: La Documentation française; 2003.

Hill C, Laplanche A.  Tabagisme et mortalité: aspects épidémiologiques.  Journée mondiale sans tabac 2003;98-100.

Hill C.  Trends in tobacco smoking and consequences on health in France.  Prev Med 1998;27:514-9.

Ho JY, Preston SH. US mortality in an international context: age variations,  PSC 09-04. Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania; 2009. (PSC Working Paper Series 09-04)

Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR.  Deceleration in the age pattern of mortality at older ages.  Demography 1998;35:391-412.

Hussain M. The role of family in adolescent smoking [Thesis]. Bradford (UK): University of Bradford; 2012.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, Volume 89. Lyon, France: IARC; 2007. (IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans.)

Iwasaki M, Akechi T, Uchitomi Y, Tsugane S.  Cigarette smoking and completed suicide among middle-aged men: a population-based cohort study in Japan.  Ann Epidemiol 2005;15:286-92.

Janssen F, Mackenbach JP, Kunst AE.  Trends in old-age mortality in seven European countries, 1950-1999.  J Clin Epidemiol 2004;57:203-16.

Jarvis MJ.  Trends in sales weighted tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of UK cigarettes.  Thorax 2001;56:960-3.

Jha P.  Avoidable global cancer deaths and total deaths from smoking.Nat Rev Cancer 2009;9:655-64.

Jha P.  Death and taxes:epidemiological and economic evidence on smoking.  Global Heart 2012;7:139-42.

Jha P, Peto R.  Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco.  N Engl J Med 2014;370:60-8.;;

Jha P, Ranson MK, Nguyen SN, Yach D.  Estimates of global and regional smoking prevalence in 1995, by age and sex.  Am J Public Health 2002;92:1002-6.

Kabir Z, Connolly GN, Clancy L.  Recent lung cancer patterns in younger age-cohorts in Ireland.  The Ulster Medical Journal 2007;76:83-7.

Kabir Z, Connolly GN, Clancy L.  Sex-differences in lung cancer cell-types? An epidemiologic study in Ireland.  The Ulster Medical Journal 2008;77:31-5.

Kawakami N, Takasuka N, Shimizu H, Takai A.  Life-time prevelance and risk factors of tobacco/nicotine dependence in male ever-smokers in Japan.  Addiction 1998;93:1023-32.

Kesteloot H.  Differential evolution of mortality between Denmark and Scotland, period 1970 to 1999. A comparison with mortality data from the European Union.  Eur J Epidemiol 2006;21:3-13.

Kim SW, Lee JM, Ban WH, Park CK, Yoon HK, Lee SH. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors. Korean J Intern Med 2016 Mar 8;31(4):685-93.

King G, Grizeau D, Bendel R, Dressen C, Delaronde SR.  Smoking behavior among French and American women.  Prev Med 1998;27:520-9.

Kjaerheim K, Boffetta P, Hansen J, Cherrie J, Chang-Claude J, Eilber U, et al.  Lung cancer among rock and slag wool production workers.  Epidemiology 2002;13:445-53.

Kolly S, Besson J, Cornuz J, Zullino DF.  Stage of change of cigarette smoking in drug dependent patients.  Swiss Med Wkly 2004;134:322-5.

Kreuzer M, Boffetta P, Whitley E, Ahrens W, Gaborieau V, Heinrich J, et al.  Gender differences in lung cancer risk by smoking: a multicentre case-control study in Germany and Italy.  Br J Cancer 2000;82:227-33.

Kuper H, Adami H-O, Boffetta P.  Tobacco use, cancer causation and public health impact.  J Intern Med 2002;251:455-66.

Law M, Wald N.  Why heart disease mortality is low in France: the time lag explanation.  BMJ 1999;318:1471-80.

Lawlor DA.  A comparison of the association between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular disease risk factors in three age cohorts of Australian women: findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.  Journal of Public Health 27:378-87.

Lawlor DA.  A book and website all IJE readers should know about [Book review].  Int J Epidemiol 2004;33:433-4.Read the review

Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Davey-Smith G.  Association of birth weight with adult lung function: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis.  Thorax 2005;60:851-8.

Lawlor DA, O'Callaghan MJ, Mamun AA, Williams GM, Bor W, Najman JM.  Early life predictors of adolescent smoking: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes.  Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19:377-87.

Lee PN. Appropriate and inappropriate methods for investigating the "gateway" hypothesis, with a review of the evidence linking prior snus use to later cigarette smoking. Harm Reduct J 2015;12:8.

Lee PN.  Lung cancer and type of cigarette smoked.  Inhal Toxicol 2001;13:951-76.

Lee PN.  Circulatory disease and smokeless tobacco in Western populations: a review of the evidence.  Int J Epidemiol 2007;36:789-804.

Lee PN.  Summary of the epidemiological evidence relating snus to health.  Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2011;59:197-214.

Lee PN, Forey BA.  Why are lung cancer rate trends so different in the United States and United Kingdom?  Inhal Toxicol 2003;15:909-49.

Lee PN, Forey BA.  Do reductions in the tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes help to explain recent reductions in lung cancer rates in young men and women in the United States?  Inhal Toxicol 2006;18:365-8.

Lee PN, Forey BA, Fry JS, Hamling JS, Hamling JF, Sanders EB, et al.  Does use of flue-cured rather than blended cigarettes affect international variation in mortality from lung cancer and COPD?  Inhal Toxicol 2009;21:404-30. Supplementary material available at [Download LEE2008L]

Lee PN, Fry JS. Reassessing the evidence relating smoking bans to heart disease. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2011;61:318-31.

Lee PN, Sanders E.  Does increased cigarette consumption nullify any reduction in lung cancer risk associated with low-tar filter cigarettes?  Inhal Toxicol 2004;16:817-33.

Levi F, Bosetti C, Fernandez E, Hill C, Lucchini F, Negri E, et al.  Trends in lung cancer among young European women: the rising epidemic in France and Spain.  Int J Cancer 2007;121:462-5.

Levi F, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Randimbison L, Te V-C.  Lung carcinoma trends by histologic type in Vaud and Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1974-1994.  Cancer 1997;79:906-14.

Levine RV, Norenzayan A.  The pace of life in 31 countries.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1999;30:178-205.

Li X. Familial risks for cancer with reference to lung cancer [Thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute; 2004.

Li X, Mutanen P, Hemminki K.  Gender-specific incidence trends in lung cancer by histological type in Sweden, 1958-1996.  Eur J Cancer Prev 2001;10:227-35.

Lindstrm M.  Social capital, social class and tobacco smoking.  Expert review of pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research 2008;8:81-9.

Lindström M.  Nicotine replacement therapy, professional therapy, snuff use and tobacco smoking: a study of smoking cessation strategies in southern Sweden.  Tob Control 2007;16:410-6.

Loubeau PR. Selected aspects of tobacco control in Bulgaria: policy review. Cent Eur J Public Health 2012;20:68-74.

Loubeau PR.  Selected aspects of tobacco control in Croatia.  Cent Eur J Public Health 2009;17:47-52.

Luy M, Wegner-Siegmundt C. The impact of smoking on gender differences in life expectancy: more heterogeneous than often stated. Eur J Public Health 2015;25(4):706-10.

Maritz GS, Mutemwa M. Tobacco smoking: patterns, health consequences for adults, and the long-term health of the offspring. Global Journal of Health Science 2012;4:62-75.

Marugame T, Sobue T, Satoh H, Komatsu S, Nishino Y, Nakatsuka H, et al.  Lung cancer death rates by smoking status: comparison of the Three-Prefecture Cohort study in Japan to the Cancer Prevention Study II in the USA.  Cancer Sci 2005;96:120-6.

McGowan R. Business, politics, and cigarettes: multiple levels, multiple agendas. Greenwood Publishing Group; 1995.

McKee M. On target? Monitoring and evaluation. In: Health targets in Europe. Learning from experience, Observatory Studies Series No 13. Denmark: World Health Organization, 2008;23-39.

Ministerstwo Zdrowia. Globalny sondaż dotyczący używania tytoniu przez osoby dorosłe (GATS) Polska 2009-2010 (Global adult tobacco survey (GATS) Poland 2009-2010). 2010. ISBN: 978-83-99691-75-2.

Moreno Vazquez JA. Estudio clínico de los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares y su coste farmacológico en una muestra de pacientes derivados a endocrinología desde atención primaria. [Thesis]. University of Granada; 2006.

Nagao K. Cross-language study of age perception [Thesis]. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University;

Nakamura M, Masui S, Oshima A, Okayama A, Ueshima H.  Effects of stage-matched repeated individual counseling on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial for the high-risk strategy by lifestyle modification (HISLIM) study.  Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 2004;9:152-60.

Nakamura Y, LaBarthe DR.  A case-control study of ulcerative colitis with relation to smoking habits and alcohol consumption in Japan.  Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:902-11.

Nakamura Y, Sakata K, Yanagawa H.  Relationships between smoking habits and other behaviour factors among males: from the results of the 1990 National Cardiovascular Survey in Japan.  J Epidemiol 1996;6:87-91.

Nelson P, McLaren J, Degenhardt L, Bucello C, Calabria B, Roberts A, et al. What do we know about the extent of opioid use and dependence? Results of a global systematic review,  Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney; 2010. Technical Report Number 209.$file/TR+309.pdf

Neeman Z, Oskar O.  Credits, crises, and capital controls: a microeconomic analysis.  Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy 2002;1:6.

Nelson JP.  Cigarette demand, structural change, and advertising bans: international evidence, 1970-1995.  Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy 2003;2:10.

Nelson JP. Youth smoking prevalence in developed and developing countries: the effect of advertising bans. 2003.

Nelson JP.  Youth smoking prevalence in developing countries: effect of advertising bans.  Appl Econ Lett 2003;10:805-11.

Nelson JP.  Cigarette advertising regulation: A meta-analysis.  International Review of Law and Economics 2006;26:195-226. Erratum appears in International Review of Law and Economics 2006;26:428.

Newey C, Nolte E, McKee M, Mossialos E. Avoidable mortality in the enlarged European Union. Paris: Institut des Sciences de la Santé; 2004.

Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, et al.Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980-2012.JAMA 2014;311:183-92.

Nguyen L, Rosenqvist G, Pekurinen M. Demand for tobacco in Europe.An econometric analysis of 11 countries for the PPACTE project. Helsinki, Finland: National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL); 2012. Report 6/2012. WP3 Final Report.pdf

Nilsson S, Carstensen JM, Pershagen G.  Mortality among male and female smokers in Sweden: a 33 year follow up.  J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55:825-30.

Nolte E, McKee M, Gilmore A. Morbidity and mortality in transition countries in the European context. Background paper for the thematic session "Morbidity, mortality and reproductive health: Facing challenges in transition countries" at the European Population Forum, Geneva, 12-14 January 2004. 2004.

Nordlund A. Tobaksrökning och hälsa i Sverige under 1990-talet. In: Sundin J, Hogstedt C, Lindberg J, Moberg H, editors. Svenska folkets hälsa i historiskt perspektiv. Statens folkhälsoinstitut, 2005;305-61. R 2005:8.

Nordlund LA.  Trends in smoking habits and lung cancer in Sweden.  Eur J Cancer Prev 1998;7:109-16.

Nordlund LA, Carstensen JM, Pershagen G.  Cancer incidence in female smokers: a 26-year follow-up.  Int J Cancer 1997;73:625-8.

Nordlund LA, Carstensen JM, Pershagen G.  Are male and female smokers at equal risk of smoking-related cancer: evidence from a Swedish prospective study.  Scand J Public Health 1999;27:56-62.

Norheim G, Sadarangani M, Omar O, Yu LM, Mølbak K, Howitz M, et al.  Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis.  BMJ Open 2014;4:e003312.

Nyberg F, Agrenius V, Svartengren K, Svensson C, Pershagen G.  Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmokers: does time since exposure play a role?  Epidemiology 1998;9:301-8.

Paarlberg R. The United States of excess: gluttony and the dark side of American exceptionalism. USA: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Pampel F. Forecasting sex differences in mortality in high income nations: the contribution of smoking prevalence, Human mortality over age, time, sex, and place: The first HMD symposium, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, June 18-19 2004. 2004.

Pampel F.  Forecasting sex differences in mortality in high income nations: the contribution of smoking.  Demographic Research 2005;13:455-84.

Pampel F, Legleye S, Goffette C, Piontek D, Kraus L, Khlat M.  Cohort changes in educational disparities in smoking: France, Germany and the United States.  Soc Sci Med 2015;127:41-50.

Pampel FC.  Declining sex differences in mortality from lung cancer in high-income nations.  Demography 2003;40:45-65.

Pampel FC.  Global patterns and determinants of sex differences in smoking.  International Journal of Comparative Sociology 2006;

Pardell H, Tresserras R, Salto E, Armario P, Harnandez R.  Management of the hypertensive patient who smokes.  Drugs 1988;56:177-87.

Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, Silcocks P, Whitley E, Doll R.  Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies.  BMJ 2000;321:323-9.

Pechmann C, Dixon P, Layne N.  An assessment of US and Canadian smoking reduction objectives for the year 2000.  Am J Public Health 1998;88:1362-7.

Pitard A, Brennan P, Clavel J, Greiser E, Lopez-Abente G, Chang-Claude J, et al.  Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk in European men.  Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:551-6.

Preston SH, Ho JY. Low life expectancy in the United States: Is the health care system at fault? PSC Working Paper Series PSC 09-03. Penn Libraries University of Pennsylvania; 2009. p. 49.

Pomerleau J, Gilmore A, McKee M, Rose R, Balabanova D. Comparative analysis of the impact of tobacco and alcohol consumption in eight countries of the former Soviet Union. 2003. (Living conditions, lifestyle and health. EU fifth framework project, 2000-2003.) Work package # 32 (working paper no 16).

Pomerleau J, Gilmore A, McKee M, Rose R, Haerpfer CW.  Determinants of smoking in eight countries of the former Soviet Union: results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health study.  Addiction 2004;99:1577-85.

Pomerleau J, McKee M, Haerpfer CW, Rotman D, Tumanov S.  Drinking in the Commonwealth of Independent States - evidence from eight countries.  Addiction 2005;100:1647-68.

Pride NB.  Projections of COPD in males in The Netherlands.  Eur Respir J 2006;27:240-1.

Quirmbach D, Gerry CJ. Gender, education and Russia's tobacco epidemic: A life-course approach. Soc Sci Med 2016 May 9;160:54-66.

Roseman C, Truedsson L, Kapetanovic MC. The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on markers of systemic inflammation, immunoglobulin levels and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2012;14(4):R170.

Rostron B.  Smoking-attributable mortality in the United States.  Epidemiology 2011;22:350-5.

Rostron BL, Wilmoth JR.  Estimating the effect of smoking on slowdowns in mortality declines in developed countries.  Demography 2011;48:461-79.

Rybicki BA.  Genetic epidemiological approaches to the study of lung disease.  Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2003;24:137-50.

Schulze A, Lampert T. Bundes-Gesundheitssurvey: Soziale unterschiede im rauchverhalten und in der passivrauchbelastung in Deutschland. Berlin: Robert Koch-Institut; 2006.

Schulze A, Mons U.  Trends in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among birth cohorts of 1926-1970 in Germany.  Eur J Cancer Prev 2005;14:477-83.

Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Health effects of smokeless tobacco products. Brussels: European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General; 2008.

Sekhon JS.  Statistics, false inferences and unacknowledged uncertainties.  Significance 2010;7:124-7.

Seki T, Nishino Y, Tanji F, Maemondo M, Takahashi S, Sato I, et al.  Cigarette smoking and lung cancer risk according to histologic type in Japanese men and women.Cancer Sci 2013;104:1515-22.

Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon E, editors. Tobacco control country profiles, 2nd edition, 12th World Conference on Tobacco or Health, Helsinki August 2003. Atlanta GA: American Cancer Society Inc., World Health Organization, International Union Against Cancer; 2003.

Shafey O, Fernández E, Thun M, Schiaffino A, Dolwick S, Cokkinides V.  Cigarette advertising and female smoking prevalence in Spain, 1982-1997 - case studies in international tobacco surveillance.  Cancer 2004;100:1744-9. Erratum appears in Cancer 2004;101:2370.

Shahab L.  The epidemiology of smoking: a growing concern.  Hot Topics in Respiratory Medicine 2008;8:7-14.

Shibuya K, Inoue M, Lopez AD.  Statistical modeling and projections of lung cancer mortality in 4 industrialized countries.  Int J Cancer 2005;117:476-85.

Siafakas NM, Vermier P, Pride NB, Paoletti P, Gibson J, Howard P, et al.  Optimal assessment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  Eur Respir J 1995;8:1398-420.

Sidloff D, Stather P, Dattani N, Bown M, Thompson J, Sayers R, et al. Aneurysm global epidemiology study: public health measures can further reduce abdominal aortic aneurysm mortality. Circulation 2014;129(7):747-53.

Singh RB, Singh S, Chattopadhya P, Singh K, Singh V, Kulshrestha SK, et al.  Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India.  International Journal of COPD 2007;2:177-85.

Singhal S, Quiñonez CR, Jha P.  An observational study to assess changes in social inequality in smoking-attributable upper aero digestive tract cancer mortality among Canadian males between 1986 and 2001.BMC Public Health 2013;13:328.

Soejima Y, Steptoe A, Nozoe S, Tei C.  Psychosocial and clinical factors predicting resumption of work following acute myocardial infarction in Japanese men.  Int J Cardiol 1999;72:39-47.

Sponsiello-Wang Z, Weitkunat R, Lee PN.  Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer of the pancreas in Europe and North America.  BMC Cancer 2008;8:356-68.

Staetsky L.  Diverging trends in female old-age mortality: a reapprisal.  Demographic Research 2009;21:885-914.

Staetsky L. The role of smoking in the explanation of the Israeli Jewish pattern of sex differentials in mortality. Popul Stud (Camb ) 2011;65:231-44.

Staudigl D. Rauchen und recht. Rechtliche rahmenbedingungen des tabakkonsums und seiner bewerbung im österreichischen recht unter besonderer berücksichtung der grundreche [Thesis]. Universitat wien; 2009.

Steptoe A, Wardle J, Smith H, Kopp M, Skrabski A, Vinck J, et al.  Tobacco smoking in young adults from 21 European countries: association with attitudes and risk awareness.  Addiction 1995;90:571-82.

Stoeldraijer L, Bonneux L, van Duin C, van Wissen L, Janssen F. The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands. Addiction 2014;110(2):336-45.

Su WZ, Tohnai I, Tamakoshi A, Wakai K, Aoki R, Kojima M, et al.  Trends in site-specific mortality from oral and pharyngeal cancer among Japanese males, 1950-94.  Oral Oncol 1999;35:9-16.

Tereda K, Kawakami N, Inana S, Takatsuka N, Shimizu H.  Rationality/antiemotionality personality and selected chronic diseases in a community population in Japan.  J Psychosom Res 2000;48:31-5.

Törő K, Vörös K, Mészner Z, Váradi-T A, Tóth A, Kovács K. Evidence for infection and inflammation in infant deaths in a country with historically low incidences of sudden infant death syndrome. Front Immunol 2015;6:389.

Trédaniel J, Boffetta P, Saracci R, Hirsch A.  Non-smoker lung cancer deaths attributable to exposure to spouse's environmental tobacco smoke.  Int J Epidemiol 1997;26:939-44.

Trovato F, Heyen NB. A divergent pattern of the sex differences in life expectancy: Sweden and Japan, early 1970s-late 1990s. Soc Biol 2003;50(3-4):238-58.

Trovato F. Narrowing sex differential in life expectancy in Canada and Austria: comparative analysis. In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research. Austria: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005;17-52.

Trovat F, Lalu N. From divergence to convergence: the sex differential in life expentancy in Canada, 1971-2000. Can Rev Sociol 2007;44(1):101-22.

Tsai SP, Wendt JK, Hunter RB.  Trends in cigarette smoking among refinery and petrochemical plant employees with a discussion of the potential impact on lung cancer.  Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2001;74:477-82.

Tycznski JE, Bray F, Parkin DM.  Lung cancer in Europe in 2000: epidemiology, prevention, and early detection.  Lancet Oncol 2003;4:45-55.

Tyczynski JE, Bray F, Aareleid T, Dalmas M, Kurtinaitis J, Plesko I, et al.  Lung cancer mortality patterns in selected central, eastern and southern European countries.  Int J Cancer 2004;109:598-610.

US Surgeon General. Women and smoking. A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2001. Available from:

van der Zee SC, Fischer PH, Hoek G. Air pollution in perspective: health risks of air pollution expressed in equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes. Environ Res 2016 Jul;148:475-83.

Van Hemelrijck MJJ, Kabir Z, Connolly GN.  Trends in lung cancer death rates in Belgium and the Netherlands.  J Community Health 2009;34:188-94.

Wald NJ, Hackshaw AK. Cigarette smoking: an epidemiological overview. Br Med Bull 1996;52(1):3-11.

 Warren CPW.  The nature and causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a historical perspective.  The Christie Lecture 2007, Chicago, USA.  Can Respir J 2009;16:13-20.

Webb MS, Carey MP.  Tobacco smoking among low-income Black women: demographic and psychosocial correlates in a community sample.  Nicotine Tob Res 2008;10:219-29.

World Health Organization.The current status of the tobacco epidemic in Poland (Stan zagrożenia epidemią palenia tytoniu w Polsce). Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO; 2009.

Yamamoto S, Yoshimura K, Ri S, Fujita S, Akasu T, Moriya Y.  The risk of multiple primary malignancies with colorectal carcinoma.  Dis Colon Rectum 2006;49(10 Suppl):S30-S36.

Yoshimi I, Sobue T.  (Current status of tobacco smoking in Japan).  Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 2004;42:581-8.

Zammit S, Allebeck P, Dalman C, Lundberg I, Hemmingsson T, Lewis G.  Investigating the association between cigarette smoking and schizophrenia in a cohort study.  Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:2216-21.

Zamora A, Elosua R, Marrugat J.  El tabaco como factor de riesgo cardiovascular en las poblaciones mediterraneas.  Clin Investig Arterioscler 2004;16:207-20.

Zatoński W, Mańczuk M, Sulkowska U. Closing the health gap in European Union (Wyrównywanie róznic w zdrowiu miȩdzy krajami Unii Europejskiej) . Warsaw: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Division, the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology; 2008.,139&cmd=1,92242A37hZ25Y0hOxJEmq8wz5E056v17Qd2J7JqU

Zatoński W, Przewoźniak K, Sulkowska U, West R, Wojtyla A.  Tobacco smoking in countries of the European Union.Ann Agric Environ Med 2012;19:181-92.

Zatoński W, Zatoński M, Przewoźniak K.  Health improvement in Poland is contingent on continued extensive tobacco control measures.  Ann Agric Environ Med 2013;20:405-11.

Zatoński WA, Przewoźniak K, Sulkowska U, Mańczuk M, Gumkowski J.Palenie tytoniu w populacji mȩżczyzn i kobiet w Polsce w latach 1974-2004 (Smoking in the popuIation of men and women in Poland in the years 1974-2004).ZdrowiePubliczneiZarzadzanie 2010;4-11.,produkt,prodid,1419,strona,Zdrowie_Publiczne_i_Zarzadzanie_2_2009,katid,83.html

Zatoński WA, Mańczuk M, Sulkowska U, Przewoźniak K.Palenie tytoniu a umieralność na choroby odtytoniowe w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej (Tobacco smoking and smoking-attributable mortality in Central and Eastern Europe).  ZdrowiePubliczneiZarzadzanie 2010;58-77.,produkt,prodid,1419,strona,Zdrowie_Publiczne_i_Zarzadzanie_2_2009,katid,83.html

Zatoński WA, Przewoźniak K.  Zawartość substancji smolistych w papierosach sprzedawanych w Polsce w latach 1983-2000 (The tar in cigarettes sold in Poland in the years 1983-2000).ZdrowiePubliczneiZarzadzanie 2010;12-9.,produkt,prodid,1419,strona,Zdrowie_Publiczne_i_Zarzadzanie_2_2009,katid,83.html

Zullino D, Besson J, Schnyder C.  Stage of change of cigarette smoking in alcohol-dependent patients.  Eur Addict Res 2000;6:84-90.